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MLA, APA, and Chicago Guides: MLA Style for Electronic Sources


American Psychological Association

Modern Language Association

Chicago Manual of Style


MLA 8th Edition Guides


APA Citation of Electronic Sources

MLA 7 Citation of Electronic Sources

Chicago Citation of Electronic Sources

APA Citation of Print Sources

MLA 7 Citation of Print Sources

Chicago Citation of Print Sources

APA Sample Paper

MLA 7 Sample Paper

Chicago Sample Paper

MLA Style for Electronic Sources

In-Text Citations | Explanation of MLA Style for Electronic Sources | MLA 8th Edition Preview

MLA VIDEO SERIES: How to cite and format...

by Valencia English Faculty

Authors (2:05) | Article Titles (2:05) | Book and Periodical Titles (2:16) | Volume and Issue Numbers (3:28) | Dates of Publication and Access (5:02) | Page Ranges and Database Titles (4:09) | Place of Publication (3:29) | Publisher (2:17) | Copyright Year (1:50) | Medium: Print or Web (1:37)

Works Cited List

The color-coded guides below adhere to formatting rules from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Ed.

Library Databases

Web Sites and Other Electronic Sources

Academic One File
Academic Search Complete
African American Experience
American Government
American History
American Indian Experience
America's Newspapers
Artemis Literary Sources
Associates Programs Source Plus
Biography in Context
Books and Authors
Brittanica Academic
Business Economics and Theory Collection
Business Insights
Business Source Complete
Chronicle of Higher Education
Computer Database
CQ Researcher
Criminal Justice Periodicals
Culinary Arts Collection
Daily Life Through History
Dictionary of Literary Biography
eBook Collection (ABC- CLIO)
eBook Collection (EBSCO)
eBook Collection (Salem)
Education Full Text
Educator's Reference Complete
ERIC via First Search
Expanded Academic ASAP
Ferguson's Career Guidance Center
Film & Television Literature Index
Films on Demand
Florida Newspapers
Funk & Wagnall's
General One File
General Reference Center Gold
Global Issues in Context
Global Road Warrior
Granger's World of Poetry
Health and Wellness Resource Center
Health Reference Center Academic
Health Source Consumer Edition
Health Source Nursing Academic Edition
History Reference Center
Hoovers Premium
Hospitality and Tourism Complete
Humanities Social Sciences and Law EJournal Collection
InfoTrac Professional Collection
InfoTrac Student Edition
Issues and Controversies
Issues Understanding Controversy and Society
Latino American Experience
Legal Periodicals Full Text
LexisNexis Academic
Library Information Science and Technology
Library Literature and Information Science Full Text
Literature Criticism Online
Literary Reference Center
MAS Ultra School Edition
MasterFILE Premier
Military and Government Collection
New York Times Gale
New York Times Historical
Nursing and Allied Health Collection
Opposing Viewpoints
Orlando Sentinel
Oxford Art Online
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford Reference
Points of View Reference Center
Primary Search
Regional Business News
Sage Journals
Small Business Resource Center
Springer EJournal Collection
Sources in U.S. History
Teacher Reference Center
Virtual Reference Library
World at War
World Folklore and Folklife
World Geography
World History Ancient and Medieval Eras
World History Modern Era
World Religions
Article on a Website
Entire Website
Occupational Outlook Handbook Website
Home Page for a Course
Professor's Syllabus
PowerPoint Presentation
Online Book Chapter
Book on the Web
Book Download to a Device (Kindle, iPad, etc.)
Bible Verse Online
Online Magazine, Newspaper, or Journal Article
Audio Broadcast
Video File
Art Image
Online Interview
YouTube Video
Twitter and Facebook


In-Text Citations

Parenthetical Documentation or Citing Sources in the Text: Use the following examples as a guide for referencing sources in the body of your paper.

Site with one author:
"LifeMap is a guide to help you figure out your career and educational goals" (Jones).

Site with two or three authors:
The LRC has many electronic resources (Smith, Adams, and Williams).

Site with more than three authors:
"Online courses provide a way for students to use their time wisely" (Kilby et al.).

Site with no author; use first two words of title:
Valencia has a vital workforce development program ("More Companies").

Site with a corporate author:
"Valencia is a better place to start" (Valencia College).

Site which numbers paragraphs:
Academic Search Premier is an extremely versatile database (Byrnes, pars. 5-6).

Site for an article in pdf format which includes accurate page numbers:
"An understanding of international politics is essential in today's world" (Crawford 55).


MLA 8th Edition Preview




Information obtained from an electronic source which becomes part of a research paper, essay, speech, etc. must be documented. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, 2009 addresses a number of different types of electronic sources. This handout addresses only those electronic resources which students at Valencia College are most likely to use for research purposes. As in all cases, if you have any questions, ASK YOUR PROFESSOR!

The goal in documenting electronic sources is to aim for comprehensiveness, though for many sources, the writer will need to settle for citing whatever information is available to them. Include as much information as necessary to identify the source and allow the reader to locate it. For documents from the Internet, the minimum you should cite is the title, the date you accessed the site and the URL.

In the text of the paper, parenthetical references for electronic sources are cited just like those for print sources. MLA Style states that"For any type of source, you must include information in your text that directs readers to the correct entry in the work-cited list. Web documents generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering. If your source lacks numbering, you have to omit numbers from your parenthetical references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering (such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers. Pars is the abbreviation for paragraphs." Most examples given here do not include page numbers; if pagination were included it would be placed between the date of publication and the date of access.