MLA, APA, and Chicago Guides: MLA Style for Electronic Sources
Use the links in the table below to browse through different citation formats:
MLA Style for Electronic Sources
In-Text Citations | Explanation of MLA Style for Electronic Sources
MLA VIDEO SERIES: How to cite and format...
by Valencia English Faculty
Authors (2:05) |
Article Titles (2:05) |
Book and Periodical Titles (2:16) |
Volume and Issue Numbers (3:28) |
Dates of Publication and Access (5:02) |
Page Ranges and Database Titles (4:09) |
Place of Publication (3:29) |
Publisher (2:17) |
Copyright Year (1:50) |
Medium: Print or Web (1:37)
Works Cited List
The color-coded guides below adhere to formatting rules from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Ed.
Web Sites and Other Electronic Sources
Parenthetical Documentation or Citing Sources in the Text: Use the following examples as a guide for referencing sources in the body of your paper.
Site with one author:
"LifeMap is a guide to help you figure out your career and educational goals" (Jones).
Site with two or three authors:
The LRC has many electronic resources (Smith, Adams, and Williams).
Site with more than three authors:
"Online courses provide a way for students to use their time wisely" (Kilby et al.).
Site with no author; use first two words of title:
Valencia has a vital workforce development program ("More Companies").
Site with a corporate author:
"Valencia is a better place to start" (Valencia College).
Site which numbers paragraphs:
Academic Search Premier is an extremely versatile database (Byrnes, pars. 5-6).
Site for an article in pdf format which includes accurate page numbers:
"An understanding of international politics is essential in today's world" (Crawford 55).
Information obtained from an electronic source which becomes part of a research paper, essay, speech, etc. must be documented. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, 2009 addresses a number of different types of electronic sources. This handout addresses only those electronic resources which students at Valencia College are most likely to use for research purposes. As in all cases, if you have any questions, ASK YOUR PROFESSOR!
The goal in documenting electronic sources is to aim for comprehensiveness, though for many sources, the writer will need to settle for citing whatever information is available to them. Include as much information as necessary to identify the source and allow the reader to locate it. For documents from the Internet, the minimum you should cite is the title, the date you accessed the site and the URL.
In the text of the paper, parenthetical references for electronic sources are cited just like those for print sources. MLA Style states that"For any type of source, you must include information in your text that directs readers to the correct entry in the work-cited list. Web documents generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering. If your source lacks numbering, you have to omit numbers from your parenthetical references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering (such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers. Pars is the abbreviation for paragraphs." Most examples given here do not include page numbers; if pagination were included it would be placed between the date of publication and the date of access.