MLA, APA, and Chicago Guides: MLA Style for Electronic Sources

Use the links in the table below to browse through different citation formats:

American Psychological Association Modern Language Association Chicago Manual of Style
APA Documentation of Electronic Sources MLA Documentation of Electronic Sources Chicago Documentation of Electronic Sources
APA Documentation of Print Sources MLA Documentation of Print Sources Chicago Documentation of Print Sources
APA Sample Paper MLA Sample Paper Chicago Sample Paper

MLA Style for Electronic Sources

In-Text Citations | Explanation of MLA Style for Electronic Sources

MLA VIDEO SERIES: How to cite and format...

by Valencia English Faculty

Authors (2:05) | Article Titles (2:05) | Book and Periodical Titles (2:16) | Volume and Issue Numbers (3:28) | Dates of Publication and Access (5:02) | Page Ranges and Database Titles (4:09) | Place of Publication (3:29) | Publisher (2:17) | Copyright Year (1:50) | Medium: Print or Web (1:37)

Works Cited List

The color-coded guides below adhere to formatting rules from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Ed.

Library Databases

Web Sites and Other Electronic Sources

Academic One File
Academic Search Complete
Acceda Noticias
Access Broadcast Transcript
Access Military Government & Defense
Access World News
African American Experience
American Government
American History
American History in Video
American Indian Experience
America's Newspapers
Art & Architecture Complete
Art Full Text
Art Museum Image Gallery
Artemis Literary Sources
Associates Programs Source Plus
Behavioral Science EJournal Collection
Biography in Context
Biography Index
Biological & Agricultural Index Plus
Biomedical and Life Sciences EJournal Collection
Books and Authors
Book Review Digest Plus
Brittanica Academic
Business Abstracts with Full Text
Business and Economics EJournal Collection
Business Economics and Theory Collection
Business Insights
Business Source Complete
Chemistry and Materials Science EJournal Collection
Chronicle of Higher Education
Computer Database
Computer Science EJournal Collection
Computers and Applied Sciences Complete
CQ Global Researcher
CQ Researcher
COIN Career Library
Criminal Justice Periodicals
Culinary Arts Collection
Daily Life America
Daily Life Through History
Dictionary of Literary Biography
Earth and Environmental Science EJournal Collection
eBook Collection (ABC- CLIO)
eBook Collection (EBSCO)
eBook Collection (Salem)
Education Full Text
Educator's Reference Complete
Education Research Complete
ERIC via First Search
Expanded Academic ASAP
Ferguson's Career Guidance Center
Film & Television Literature Index
Films on Demand
Florida Newspapers
Funk & Wagnall's
General Business File ASAP
General One File
General Reference Center Gold
General Science Full Text
Global Issues in Context
Global Road Warrior
Granger's World of Poetry
Health and Wellness Resource Center
Health Reference Center Academic
Health Source Consumer Edition
Health Source Nursing Academic Edition
History Reference Center
Hoovers Premium
Hospitality and Tourism Complete
Humanities Full Text
Humanities International Complete
Humanities Social Sciences and Law EJournal Collection
InfoTrac Professional Collection
InfoTrac Student Edition
International Bibliography of Theatre and Dance
Issues and Controversies
Issues Understanding Controversy and Society
Latino American Experience
Legal Periodicals Full Text
LexisNexis Academic
Library Information Science and Technology
Library Literature and Information Science Full Text
Literature Criticism Online
Literary Reference Center
MAS Ultra School Edition
MasterFILE Premier
Mathematics and Statistics EJournal Collection
Medicine EJournal Collection
Military and Government Collection
New York Times Gale
New York Times Historical
Nursing and Allied Health Collection
Nursing and Allied Health Source
Nursing Collection
Nursing Resource Center
OmniFile Full Text Mega
Opposing Viewpoints
Orlando Sentinel
Oxford Art Online
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford Music Online
Oxford Reference
PDR3D (Physician's Desk Reference)
Physics and Astronomy EJournal Collection
Points of View Reference Center
Primary Search
Reader's Guide Full Text
Regional Business News
Sage Journals
Science in Context
SIRS Issue Researcher
Small Business Resource Center
Springer EJournal Collection
Social Sciences Full Text
Sources in U.S. History
Teacher Reference Center
Today's Science
Virtual Reference Library
Wall Street Journal
World Book Advanced
World Folklore and Folklife
World Geography
World History Ancient and Medieval Eras
World History Modern Era
World Religions
Article on a Website
Entire Website
Occupational Outlook Handbook Website
Home Page for a Course
Professor's Syllabus
PowerPoint Presentation
Online Book Chapter
Book on the Web
Book Download to a Device (Kindle, iPad, etc.)
Bible Verse Online
Online Magazine, Newspaper, or Journal Article
Audio Broadcast
Video File
Art Image
Online Interview
YouTube Video
Twitter and Facebook


In-Text Citations

Parenthetical Documentation or Citing Sources in the Text: Use the following examples as a guide for referencing sources in the body of your paper.

Site with one author:
"LifeMap is a guide to help you figure out your career and educational goals" (Jones).

Site with two or three authors:
The LRC has many electronic resources (Smith, Adams, and Williams).

Site with more than three authors:
"Online courses provide a way for students to use their time wisely" (Kilby et al.).

Site with no author; use first two words of title:
Valencia has a vital workforce development program ("More Companies").

Site with a corporate author:
"Valencia is a better place to start" (Valencia College).

Site which numbers paragraphs:
Academic Search Premier is an extremely versatile database (Byrnes, pars. 5-6).

Site for an article in pdf format which includes accurate page numbers:
"An understanding of international politics is essential in today's world" (Crawford 55).



Information obtained from an electronic source which becomes part of a research paper, essay, speech, etc. must be documented. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, 2009 addresses a number of different types of electronic sources. This handout addresses only those electronic resources which students at Valencia College are most likely to use for research purposes. As in all cases, if you have any questions, ASK YOUR PROFESSOR!

The goal in documenting electronic sources is to aim for comprehensiveness, though for many sources, the writer will need to settle for citing whatever information is available to them. Include as much information as necessary to identify the source and allow the reader to locate it. For documents from the Internet, the minimum you should cite is the title, the date you accessed the site and the URL.

In the text of the paper, parenthetical references for electronic sources are cited just like those for print sources. MLA Style states that"For any type of source, you must include information in your text that directs readers to the correct entry in the work-cited list. Web documents generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering. If your source lacks numbering, you have to omit numbers from your parenthetical references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering (such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers. Give the appropriate abbreviation before the numbers. Pars is the abbreviation for paragraphs." Most examples given here do not include page numbers; if pagination were included it would be placed between the date of publication and the date of access.