To Cite or Not to Cite? Part 3 of 5
Learning Outcome: By the end of the lesson, the student will be able to
Approximate Completion Time: 30 minutes.
**To receive credit for completing this tutorial you must complete the online assessment provided by your instructor.**
This tutorial works best in Mozilla Firefox.
It cannot save your place, so please take note of the approximate completion time above and either work on it when you have time to finish or keep track of where you were.
If you encounter technical problems, please copy the error message and send it with a description of the problem to firstname.lastname@example.org
At Valencia there are two commonly used formats for creating citations: APA and MLA. APA stands for American Psychological Association. This format emphasizes the currency of the information, so the date is more prominently displayed. APA style is commonly used in nursing, allied health science and psychology courses. MLA is the Modern Language Association style, most often required in English and Humanities classes. Only the APA style will be covered in this tutorial.
Both styles use in-text citations and full citations. The full citations shown in this tutorial would be incorporated into a complete list of the sources used in a paper (called References).
The two styles use most of the same basic components in a citation; they just arrange and display them differently.
The elements needed to cite a print book are:
The following is an APA full citation for a print book:
Huang, H. K.(2010).PACS and imaging informatics: Basic principles and applications. Hoboken:Wiley-Blackwell.
This example includes:
APA citations should be double-spaced and have a hanging indent (the second line and all the following lines are indented).
The APA format
Valencia Library has created color coded APA cheat sheets and made them available online. Review our APA examples for books.
Complete the activity below. Put the APA book citation in the correct order. You can review our APA examples for books to help you.
The elements needed to cite a journal or magazine article are:
The following is an APA full citation for a journal article (with a DOI):
Mendelson, C.(2009). Diagnosis: A liminal state for women living with Lupus. Health Care for Women International,30,390-407.doi:10.1080/07399330902785158
This example includes:
What are DOIs?
DOIs provide the permanent location of an article in the form of a URL. The DOI system guarantees that links will never change, so authors and readers can rely on them to locate articles indefinitely. Many, but not all, publishers are including DOIs in journal articles. If a DOI for an article is not available, APA directs writers to simply include the URL of the journal's website in the citation.
Valencia Library has created APA cheat sheets and made them available online. Review our APA examples for library subscription databases.
Complete the activity below. Put the APA journal article citation in the correct order. You can review our APA examples for databases to help you.
The elements needed to cite a newspaper are:
APA full citation a newspaper:
Gee, A. (2012, June 13). Radiation concerns rise with patients' exposure.The New York Times.Retrieved from
This example includes:
Valencia Library has created APA cheat sheets and made them available online. Review our APA examples for newspapers.
Complete the activity below. Put the APA newspaper citation in the correct order. You can review our APA examples for newspapers to help you.
Webpages and websites are sometimes the most confusing sources to cite. Magazine, journal, and newspaper articles are all found on the web; in those cases, citations will be similar to the print versions of these items. Sometimes, however, the content on a webpage does not fit into one of those categories - the content may simply be information on a page. In cases like these, you need to think about the four W's:
Just remember that regardless of format, APA instructs that you gather those four pieces of information.
APA full citation:
U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus. (2012). Imaging and radiology. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007451.htm
In this example:
Valencia Library has created APA cheat sheets and made them available online. Review our APA examples for websites.
Connect to the website listed below and see if you can find the corporate author, date of publication, title of the webpage and retrieval information.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Complete the activity below. Put the APA website citation in the correct order. Review our APA examples for websites to help you.
Putting several full citation entries together to make a bibliography is called a Reference List in APA.
Figure 1. Image of APA References page. Reprinted from Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2012). APA sample paper. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/
You can also visit The Owl at Purdue's website to view a properly formatted researcher paper and references page: APA sample paper and references page - PDF
Complete the activity below. Put the APA References page in the correct order.
We highly recommend visiting the official APA Style Blog written and run by the folks at APA (APA style experts). The contributing writers of the blog (who use the APA style daily in their work) publish weekly posts on every aspect of APA style one can think of. Questions posed by students, faculty and writers who need clarification on the finer points of the APA style are answered by the bloggers. They even have a Facebook page where student questions are answered.
Figure 2. Image of APA Style Blog. Reprinted from American Psychological Association - APA Style Blog. (2009). APA style experts. Retrieved from blog.apastyle.org/
APA Style Blog
APA Style on Facebook
Your instructor will provide the link to the online assessment. You must take the assessment to receive credit for completing this tutorial.