Full Citations:
To Cite or Not to Cite? Part 3 of 5

Full Citations

Outcome: You will understand the parts of a full citation and be able to create one.

Approximate Completion Time: 40 minutes.

**To receive credit for completing this portion of the tutorial you must fill out the form on page 11.**




Citation Formats

 At Valencia there are two commonly used formats for creating citations: APA and MLA. APA stands for American Psychological Association. This format emphasizes the currency of the information, so the date is more prominently displayed. APA style is commonly used in psychology classes and may also be used in nursing, business, economics, and other science and social science disciplines. MLA is the Modern Language Association style, most often required in English and Humanities classes.

Both styles use in-text citations and full citations. The full citations shown in this section would be incorporated in a complete list of the sources used in a speech (or paper).

The two styles use most of the same basic components in a citation; they just arrange and display them differently.


Book Examples

*Make sure you complete the activity at the bottom of the page.* books1.jpg


Bales, K. & Soodalter, R. (2009). The slave next door: Human trafficking and slavery in

            America today. Berkeley: University of California Press


Bales, Kevin and Rod Soodalter. The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in

            America Today. Berkeley: U of California P, 2009. Print.


Both examples include:

This information is just in a different order. Both also use double-spacing and a hanging indentation (the second line and all the following lines are indented), but other details of the formatting are a little different.


APA (For additional information see http://www.valenciacollege.edu/library/doc_apa_print.cfm).

MLA (For additional information see http://www.valenciacollege.edu/library/doc_mla_print.cfm).


Click on Labeling Activity to complete the activity.

 Hyperlink to Labeling Activity 

 Text version of labeling activity-PDF



Magazine Examples

*Make sure you complete the activity at the bottom of the page.*

magazines2.jpg Magazine articles are written by journalists for a general audience. The articles tend to be easy to read and relatively short. Sometimes magazine articles are found in library subscription databases. Other times they may be found on free web sites, as in the following examples.

The elements needed to cite a magazine article are:


Fetini, A. (18 June 2009). Human trafficking rises in recession. Time. Retrieve

from http://www.time.com/.

APA examples for library subscription databases. Select the relevant database from the list.



Fetini, Alyssa. "Human Trafficking Rises in Recession." Time. Time, 18 June 2009. Web. 7 July


MLA examples for library subscription databases. Select the relevant database from the list.

Click on Labeling Activity to complete the activity.

 Hyperlink to Labeling Activity 

Text version of labeling activity-PDF


Newspaper Examples

*Make sure you complete the activity at the bottom of the page.*

newspapers.jpg To cite a newspaper article you need:


 APA :

Mizell, V. (8 October 2009). Working to shed light on very dark practices – Activists seek to end

            human trafficking in D.C. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com

More APA examples.


Mizell, Vanessa. "Working to Shed Light on Very Dark Practices – Activists Seek to End

            Human Trafficking in D.C." Washington Post 8 Oct. 2009: T3. Newsbank. Web. 7 July


More MLA examples.



Click on Labeling Activity to complete the activity.

 Hyperlink to Labeling Activity 

 Text version of labeling activity-PDF


Web Page Examples

Web sites are sometimes the most confusing sources to cite. Magazine, journal, and newspaper articles and even books are all found on the web; in those cases, citations will be similar to print versions of magazine, journals, newspapers and books. Sometimes, however, the content on a web page does not fit into one of those categories. In cases like these, you need:


U.S. Department of State. (2010). Trafficking in persons report 2010. Retrieved from


More APA web examples.



U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report 2010. U.S. Department of State. June

            2010. Web. 7 July 2010.

More MLA web examples.

Keep in mind that sources that provide more of this information are likely to be more credible than those that do not, so if you are having trouble finding some of this information you should carefully evaluate whether to use the source in your speech.


Places to look for this information include:


In particular, author is usually at the top or bottom of the page.

Title of the web page can be found either on the top of the page or on the top toolbar.

The title of the web site and the publisher or sponsor of the site can usually be found by looking at the home page of the site, e.g. for http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/index.htm, cut off the rest of the URL and look at http://www.state.gov, or in "About Us" link.

The date of publication, if there is one, is usually at the top or bottom of the page.

The date of access is just the date you looked at the site.


Web Site Activity


Connect to the web site listed below and see if you can find the author, title of the page, title of the web site, publisher or sponsor and the date of publication.




Now put it all together and create a citation for the web page listed above in either MLA or APA style.

Italics will not work in the box; use an i at the beginning and end of a word or words to indicate where italics should go.

The tab key also will not work; use + at the beginning of a line to indicate that it should be indented.

Remember that you can go back to the previous page to see an example.

Click on More APA web examples or More MLA web examples if the example on the previous page does not match the information you have.


 Toggle open/close quiz question




Differences Among Types of Sources

When you look at a citation you should be able to tell what kind of source it represents.

Books will always have a year of publication instead of a specific month, day, or season and will also include a place of publication.

Magazines, journals and newspapers all have more specific dates and will have an article and a publication title.

Journal articles tend to have more scholarly titles, both of the articles themselves and of the publication, often including the word "journal" in name of the publication. In MLA style, volume and issue are included with journals, but not with magazines or newspapers.

Magazines and newspapers tend to have more catchy titles. Newspapers are usually published daily and often include the name of the city in the newspaper title. Magazines are usually published weekly or monthly.

Web pages may also be magazine, newspaper, or journal articles or even books, or sometimes they are original content not included as part of one of the other types. In APA style the URL for the web site is included. In MLA style, web is always mentioned as the medium.


Which is Which?

Look at the following list of sources in the APA style (with numbers added), observe the different elements used among the citations,

and then answer the questions below.



1. Bell, K. (2010, March). 5 surprising signs you're sleep deprived. Prevention, 62 (3), 59-62.

            Retrieved from http://www.prevention.com/health

2. Brody, J. (1999, December 28). Personal health: Paying the price for cheating on sleep. New

            York Times, p. 7. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

3. Epstein, L. J. (2010, June 28). The surprising toll of sleep deprivation. Newsweek  155/156,

            (26/1), 75. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com

4. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (2006, April). In brief: Your guide to healthy sleep.

Retrieved July 12, 2010, from


5. National Sleep Foundation. (2009). How much sleep do we really need? Retrieved July 12, 2010,

from http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/how-sleep-works/how-much-sleep-do-we-


6. Schenck, C. (2007). Sleep: The mysteries, the problems and the solutions. New York: Avery.

7. Swanson, J. (1999). Sleep disorders sourcebook. Detroit: Omnigraphics.

8. Turner, E., Jr. (2010, March 10). Sleep deprivation a serious issue for students. Hilltop. Retrieved

July 12, 2010 from http://www.thehilltoponline.com


 Toggle open/close quiz group


 Creating a Works Cited or References page

Putting several full citation entries together to make a bibliography is called a Works Cited page in MLA or a References page in APA.

APA sample References page - PDF

MLA sample Works Cited page - PDF

Create a sample citation for the following (hint: go back to page 5 to see an example):

Minstries aim to close Jerusalem's Old City to traffic.

Jerusalem Post, The (Israel) - Tuesday, April 29, 2008.


The Tourism and Transportation ministries are working toward closing Jerusalem's Old City to transportation, both private and public.

(The rest of the article would appear next, but instead we will skip to the bottom.)

Edition: Daily.

Section: News.

Page: 05.

Record Number: 120677CF1956B990.

Copyright, 2008, The Jerusalem Post, All Rights Reserved.

 Toggle open/close quiz question



Print Your Score