In Speech Citations:
To Cite or Not to Cite? Part 4 of 5

In Speech Citations

Outcome: You will understand and be able to use oral footnotes and in-text citations.

Approximate Completion Time: 45 minutes.

**To receive credit for completing this portion of the tutorial you must fill out the form on page 20.**

 

 

An Introduction to In-Speech Citations

Including a full list of citations on a Works Cited or Reference page is a good start to your speech, but it is not enough. In this section you will learn how to include citations within your speech and your presentation aids:

 

When to Cite.

Common Knowledge.

Oral Footnotes.

In-Text Citations.

Citing Charts, Tables, Images, Videos, etc.

When to Cite

There are only two types of information that do not require a citation:

Everything else requires a citation. When in doubt, cite.

 

Watch a brief video clip on using images and paraphrasing. (Note: for closed captioned version, select the Windows Media version of the clip from the drop-down menu underneath the video. Then click the icon on the right-hand side on the tool bar beneath the video to turn the captioning on.)

 

 

 

Common Knowledge

Common knowledge includes

            Facts that are well-known and not widely disputed, often historical.

 

Examples of well-known facts

Periodic Table of the Elements

  • The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.
  • Barack Obama is the 44th President of the United States.
  • Disney World is located south of Orlando, Florida.
  • Thanksgiving is celebrated on the 4th Thursday in November in the United States.
  • The chemical symbol for carbon is C.

 

Periodic Table of the Elements

(Image credit: pt. periodictable. Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic license) 

Fig. 1: Torrone, Phillip. Periodictable. 19 Aug. 2005. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

Experts do not always agree on what else is included in common knowledge.

Karl Stolley and Allen Brizee of the Purdue Online Writing Lab, a widely used and highly regarded source on citation, suggest, "Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources."

Many sources such as Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell's Wadsworth Handbook include "familiar sayings and well-known quotations" (223)

Kirszner & Mandell also include "information most readers probably know" (223).

Information your readers (or listeners) already know may be context-dependent, i.e. it may vary based on which class you are in, who the other students are, which discipline (English, Math, Biology, etc.) is involved, etc.

 

When in doubt, cite. It is better to have some unnecessary citations than to neglect needed ones.

 

 

When to Cite Quiz

 

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Oral Footnotes

Speakers use oral footnotes in a speech to establish the credibility of the information presented. The audience should be assured that the information comes from a reliable source which can be looked up later by an interested listener.

Examples:

In the examples above, "In a September 2009 speech to Congress, President Obama stated" and "According to a November 2009 Gallup Poll" are the oral footnotes. They give the listener a brief idea of the source of the information and introduce the quote and statistic given above. When composing an oral footnote include at least:

You may also want to include (and your professor may require):

Make sure you are clear on your professor's requirements before you give your speech.

Oral footnotes refer the listener to the full citation on the References or Works Cited page. So for the two examples given above, the speaker would include a full citation to President Obama's speech and to the Gallup Poll on the Works Cited page. MLA Works Cited Page for a speech using those two examples:

Works Cited

Jones, Jeffrey M. "Greater Optimism about U.S. Health System Coverage, Costs."  Gallup. 19 Nov. 2009. 

                Web. 13 July 2010.

Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Health Care." U.S. Capitol,

                Washington, DC.  9 Sept. 2009. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

Oral Footnotes Continued

It is common for newspaper articles, books, web sites and other sources to quote other sources in the course of an article. Be sure to quote the original source  (person or organization) of the information in your oral footnote and then the article in which you found that information on your works cited page.

For example, in a March 24, 2010 article in the Orlando Sentinel, columnist Mike Thomas quoted Bill McCollum: "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market" (B1).

If you used this quotation from Bill McCollum in a speech you would say something like this:  According to Bill McCollum, Attorney General for the State of Florida, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

Your Works Cited page would include the full citation for the newspaper article that included this quote:

Thomas, Mike. "Health Care: Can It Stand Up to the Challenges?" Orlando Sentinel 24 Mar. 2010: B1.

                Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

Notice that the full citation does not mention Bill McCollum; it is not necessary to go back and find the original source for Mike Thomas' quotation and include it on your Works Cited Page. But it is necessary to mention Bill McCollum as the sources of the words in your oral footnote.

Incorrect Examples:

According to the Orlando Sentinel, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

According to Mike Thomas, "The U.S. Constitution grants no authority to Congress to compel citizens to purchase health insurance when those citizens choose not to enter the health-care market."

These are not the words of Mike Thomas nor the official position of the Orlando Sentinel.

 

Oral Footnotes -- Test Your Knowledge

Read the article "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." You will need your borrower ID number from the back of your Valencia ID (either your VID or a longer number beginning with 259). Your PIN should be the last four digits of your VID.

Click on Quiz Group below to quiz yourself on your knowledge of oral footnotes.

 

 

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In-Text Citations

In-text citations are the written equivalent of oral footnotes, giving the reader a brief idea of the source of information. In-text citations are sometimes called parenthetical citations because they appear in parenthesis in the body of the text in both the APA and MLA styles. Although more commonly used in papers, in-text citations are sometimes used in speech classes and incorporated into

Check with your instructor to determine his or her preferences on including in-text citations in any of the above.

 

In-Text Citation Examples

In the APA format, an in-text citation includes

Example: "If government insures 30 million or more Americans, health spending will rise" (Samuelson, 2009, p. A21).

 

For MLA style, include

Example: "If government insures 30 million or more Americans, health spending will rise" (Samuelson A21).

 

Conservative Activists

(Photo credit: TalkMediaNews. Conservative Activists Hold a Second 'House Call.' Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license.)

Fig. 2: Talk Radio News Service. Conservative Activists Hold a Second 'House Call.' 7 Nov. 2009. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

In-Text Citations Examples for Web Sources and No Author Given

For electronic resources that have no page numbers omit the page number. For APA, substitute a paragraph number.

APA: "If a government's first priority is to protect the lives of its people, then ringfencing health spending while cutting other budgets and trying to drive down the cost of medicines—policies being pursued in Europe—seem sensible options" (Kelland, 2010, para. 2).

 

MLA: "If a government's first priority is to protect the lives of its people, then ringfencing health spending while cutting other budgets and trying to drive down the cost of medicines—policies being pursued in Europe—seem sensible options" (Kelland).

 

mollysecours.jpg

(Photo credit: Speaker Pelosi. Molly Secours. Used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.) 

Fig. 3: Pelosi, Nancy. Molly Secours. 22 July 2009. Flickr. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

 

If a particular work has no author use a shortened version of the title instead of the author's last name.

APA: "The Affordable Care Act expands initiatives to increase racial and ethnic diversity in the health care professions." ("Health Disparities," 2010).

MLA: "The Affordable Care Act expands initiatives to increase racial and ethnic diversity in the health care professions." ("Health Disparities").

 

Full MLA citations for the in-text citation examples given:

"Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act." HealthCare.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human

                Services. 2010. Web. 13 July 2010.

Kelland, Kate. "Analysis: Health and Austerity: When Budget Cuts Cost Lives." Reuters. 4 July 2010. Web.

                13 July 2010.

Samuelson, Robert. "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." Washington Post 14 Dec. 2009: A21. Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

 

In-Text Citation Quiz

Connect to the following story from the Orlando Sentinel and decide how you would do an MLA in-text citation for it:

Orlando Sentinel story

 

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Citing Charts, Tables, Images, Videos, etc.

The MLA and APA publication manuals are designed for published written work and do not give explicit guidelines for how to cite audiovisual materials used as a visual aid while speaking, so here are some suggested guidelines:

If your chart, table, audio file, or video file

cite it within your speech and provide a full citation on your Works Cited or References page.

 

To cite within your speech, insert a line underneath the chart, table, audio or video file including at least

Including at least this much information will lead your audience to the correct entry on your works cited page.

 

Also consider including additional information if it will help your audience understand the context, such as:

Example

Here is an example of a graph created from data on a table in the U.S. Census Bureau's Statistical Abstract.

Registered and Actual Voters in the 2008 Presidential Election

voters3.jpg

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

If including more than one graph from the same source, e.g. U.S. Census Bureau, give your audience enough information to distinguish the two graphs on your Works Cited or References page. In this example, putting the name of the publication and the table number, as below, should be enough to distinguish this graph from other U.S. Census Bureau graphs:

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. 2011 Statistical Abstract. Table 416. "Voting-Age Population--Reported Registration and Voting by Selected Characteristics: 1996 to 2008."

 

To create a full citation for this table to put on your Works Cited or References page, cite it as you would any other web page.

APA:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Table 416. Voting-age population--Reported registration and voting

by selected characteristics: 1996 to 2008. Retrieved from

http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2011/tables/11s0416.pdf

MLA:

U.S. Census Bureau. "Table 416. Voting-Age Population--Reported Registration and Voting by

            Selected Characteristics: 1996 to 2008." 2011 Statistical Abstract. U.S. Census Bureau,

2011. Web. 24 Jan. 2011.

 

 

Citing Charts, Graphs, Audio and Video Quiz

Connect to the following article from the Gallup Poll and look at the graph labeled, "American Adults, by Weight Category."

 

Gallup Poll article

 Toggle open/close quiz question

Why URLs are Not Enough

Including a URL in a citation, whether a full citation on a Works Cited or References page or on your visual aid, can be helpful to your audience in locating a web resource (and it is required for an APA full citation), but by itself it is not enough for three reasons:

If you have included a full citation for web resources used, your audience has a good chance of finding them even if the URLs have changed. Simply typing the author and title into a search engine will probably be enough to find it.

 

Illustrations 

Sometimes you may use an image purely as an illustration, e.g.

Such illustrations do not include information important to the point you are making and need not be included as full citations on your Works Cited or References page.

When considering whether to include brief citations on your visual aid, remember the general principle of giving credit to others for their work but also consult your professor for his or her preferences.

Keep in mind that if you were giving other types of speeches, e.g.

the rules may be different than for a college speech class. In those cases, consider professional standards in your field.

If you do include citations on your visual aid, follow the guidelines previously given for graphs, charts, audio and video files.

Example:

freefloating.jpg

Source: NASA. "Free Floating (1984)."

 

A Word on Copyright

Note that plagiarism and copyright are two separate issues. Citing a photo, video or other media file does not mean that you have used the material legally.

Generally using these types of materials:

is allowed under fair use guidelines. See U.S. Copyright Office - Fair Use and Stanford Copyright and Fair Use for more information.

However, if you intend to

then consider the copyright laws for including photographs, videos, etc. Seek permission and provide appropriate legal notices in the body of your presentation. In some cases, a royalty must be paid in order to use others' creations. In other cases, royalty-free work is available for use under certain conditions.

The photo credit given below is an appropriate one for a Creative Commons image being reproduced on a web site for educational purposes.

machupicchu.jpg

(Photo credit: Luke Redmond.Machu Picchu (The Lost City of the Incas).Used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic license.)

  

 

 

Works Cited

Works Cited

 

"Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act." HealthCare.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human

 Services. 2010. Web. 13 July 2010.

Information Literacy: the Perils of Online Research. Dir. Amy S. Weber and Ryan Demetrak.

Cambridge Educational, 2006. Films on Demand. Web. 13 July 2010.

Jones, Jeffrey M. "Greater Optimism about U.S. Health System Coverage, Costs."  Gallup. 19 Nov. 2009. 

Web. 13 July 2010.

Kelland, Kate. "Analysis: Health and Austerity: When Budget Cuts Cost Lives." Reuters. 4 July 2010. Web.

13 July 2010.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. TheWadsworthHandbook. 9th ed.Boston: Wadsworth, 2011.

Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Health Care." U.S. Capitol,

Washington, DC.  9 Sept. 2009. Web. 13 July 2010.

Samuelson, Robert. "A Savings Mirage on Health Care." Washington Post 14 Dec. 2009: A21. Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

Stolley, Karl and Allen Brizee. "Is it Plagiarism Yet?" Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue U., 21 April 2010.

Web.13 Aug. 2010.

Thomas, Mike. "Health Care: Can It Stand Up to the Challenges?" Orlando Sentinel 24 Mar. 2010: B1.

 Newsbank. Web. 13 July 2010.

 

 

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