The following do not require citation:
If information is "common knowledge," or can be gathered from many sources, it does not need a specific cited source directly linked to it. The same information appearing in three or more reputable sources is considered common knowledge. Examples of this often include:
However, if Val has any doubt, it's best for her to cite a source!
The bottom line: An author's personal thoughts and common knowledge do not require an in-text citation.
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