In-Text Citations

In-text citations are the written equivalent of oral footnotes, giving the reader a brief idea of the source of information. In-text citations are sometimes called parenthetical citations because they appear in parenthesis in the body of the text in both the APA and MLA styles. Although more commonly used in papers, in-text citations are sometimes used in speech classes and incorporated into

  • outlines,
  • speaker notes,
  • PowerPoint presentations.

Check with your instructor to determine his or her preferences on including in-text citations in any of the above.


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