If Val uses an author's exact words she must put them in quotation marks and cite the author, both in the body of her paper immediately following the quote and at the end of her paper.
Val can put an author's thoughts into her own words, but she must cite the source, again both at the end of the sentence and at the end of her paper.
And…changing only a few words does NOT constitute paraphrasing. Val really does have to reword the quote and paraphrase in HER own words!
Val can sum up an author's ideas in her own words, but because the ideas are not her own, she must cite in and at the end of the paper.
The bottom line: Direct quotes, paraphrases and summaries all require an in-text citation.
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